Single-step capture and sequencing of natural DNA for detection of BRCA1 mutations
John F. Thompson, Jeffrey G. Reifenberger, Eldar Giladi, Kristen Kerouac, Jaime Gill, Erik Hansen, Avak Kahvejian, Philipp Kapranov, Travis Knope, Doron Lipson, Kathleen E. Steinmann, and Patrice M. Milos
Genetic testing for disease risk is an increasingly important component of medical care. However, testing can be expensive, which can lead to patients and physicians having limited access to the genetic information needed for medical decisions. To simplify DNA sample preparation and lower costs, we have developed a system in which any gene can be captured and sequenced directly from human genomic DNA without amplification, using no proteins or enzymes prior to sequencing. Extracted whole-genome DNA is acoustically sheared and loaded in a flow cell channel for single-molecule sequencing. Gene isolation, amplification, or ligation is not necessary. Accurate and low-cost detection of DNA sequence variants is demonstrated for the BRCA1 gene. Disease-causing mutations as well as common variants from well-characterized samples are identified. Single-molecule sequencing generates very reproducible coverage patterns, and these can be used to detect any size insertion or deletion directly, unlike PCR-based methods, which require additional assays. Because no gene isolation or amplification is required for sequencing, the exceptionally low costs of sample preparation and analysis could make genetic tests more accessible to those who wish to know their own disease susceptibility. Additionally, this approach has applications for sequencing integration sites for gene therapy vectors, transposons, retroviruses, and other mobile DNA elements in a more facile manner than possible with other methods.